When Should the GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile Be Considered?
The GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile can reveal important information about the root cause of many common gastrointestinal symptoms such as gas, bloating, indigestion, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. This stool analysis utilises biomarkers such as Calprotectin to differentiate between Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).3,4 In addition, Genova's GI Effects test can be used to evaluate patients with a clinical history that suggests a gastrointestinal infection or dysbiosis.
Gut microbes are codependent with one another and with their human host, and the health of one affects the other. A sizeable volume of research associates a dysbiotic, or imbalanced gut microbiome with multiple disease states both within and outside of the GI tract.1,2 The diverse metabolic activities of the microbiome ultimately impact the human host, and the activities of the human host ultimately affect the health of their microbiome.
What is the GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile?
The GI Effects® Comprehensive Stool Profile is an advanced stool test that provides immediate, actionable clinical information for the management of gastrointestinal health. Utilising cutting-edge technologies and biomarkers, this test offers valuable insight into digestive function, intestinal inflammation, and the intestinal microbiome.
The biomarkers from the GI Effects Comprehensive Profile are reported using the DIG framework, providing key clinical information for three main gastrointestinal functional areas:
- Pancreatic Elastase-1 is a marker of exocrine pancreatic function.
- Products of Protein Breakdown are markers of undigested protein reaching the colon.
- Faecal Fat is a marker of fat breakdown and absorption.
- Calprotectin is a marker of neutrophil-driven inflammation. Produced in abundance at sites of inflammation, this biomarker has been proven clinically useful in differentiating between Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).3,4
- Eosinophil Protein X is a marker of eosinophil-driven inflammation and allergic response.
- Faecal Secretory IgA is a marker of gut secretory immunity and barrier function.
- Gut Microbiome:
- Metabolic indicators, including short-chain fatty acids and beta-glucuronidase, demonstrate specific and vital metabolic functions performed by the microbiota.
- Commensal Bacteria demonstrate the composition and relative abundance of gut organisms.
- More than 95% of commensal gut organisms are anaerobic and are difficult to recover by traditional (aerobic) culture techniques.
- GI Effects assesses a set of 24 genera/species that map to 7 major phyla.
- Bacterial and mycology cultures demonstrate the presence of specific beneficial and pathological organisms.
- Bacteria and mycology sensitivities are provided for pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms that have been cultured. The report includes effective prescriptive and natural agents.
- GI Effects provides microscopic faecal specimen examination for ova and parasites (O&P), the gold standard of diagnosis for many parasites.
- Enzyme immunoassay (EIA), widely recognised for its diagnostic utility in the detection of pathogenic antigens, is used for the identification of Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia.
- Selection of a one-day or three-day sample collection is based on clinician's clinical index of suspicion for parasitic infection. If there is no/low suspicion, a one-day sample will likely be adequate. For high suspicion, a three-day sample collection is optimal.
- Additional Biomarkers Available:
- Clostridium difficile
- Escherichia coli
- Faecal Lactoferrin
- Helicobacter pylori
- Macro Exam for Worms
- Zonulin Family Peptide
- KOH Preparation for Yeast
What Advantage Does the Profile Offer Compared to Other Diagnostics?
A structured faecal biomarker panel offers the advantage of assessing multiple functional areas that may be contributing to symptoms. For example, diarrhea could stem from multiple causes including pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, inflammation, food allergies, or the presence of a pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organism. A positive result on one or more faecal biomarker tests may guide therapy, either by suggesting a treatable alternative diagnosis or by eliminating a diagnosis from further consideration. The latter allows individualised targeted treatment to be redirected to more likely diagnoses.5,6
GI Effects® represents the best technical platform to assess gut health, including an anaerobic bacteria PCR molecular assay, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology for cultivable species identification, as well as stool-based biomarkers for gastrointestinal diagnostics.
The test report is organised so that the clinician may move through results in a logical order that enhances clinical utility, starting with innovative Interpretation-At-A-Glance pages to synthesise the information.
What Can Clinicians and Patients Expect from GI Effects Comprehensive Profile Stool Testing?
The GI Effects Stool Profile biomarkers provide comprehensive information for the development of strategic interventions. Symptoms often improve as identified functional imbalances and inadequacies become normalised through targeted dietary, lifestyle, and supplementation therapeutics.
The GI Effects Interpretive Guide is a convenient tool to support the therapeutic decision-making process for patients with complex gut-related conditions.
- Marchesi J, et. al. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier. Gut. 2016 Feb;65(2):330-9.
- Clemente J, et. al. The impact of the gut microbiota on human health: an integrative review. Cell. 2012 Mar;148(6):1258-70.
- Menees SB, et. al. A meta-analysis of the utility of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fecal calprotectin, and fecal lactoferrin to exclude inflammatory bowel disease in adults with IBS. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 Mar;110(3):444-54.
- Dabritz J, Musci J, Foell D. Diagnostic utility of faecal biomarkers in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jan;20(2):363-375.
- Parsons K, et. al. Novel testing enhances irritable bowel syndrome medical management: the IMMINENT study. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 May;3(3):25-32.
- Goepp J, et. al. Frequency of abnormal fecal biomarkers in irritable bowel syndrome. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 May;3(3):9-15.