Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Blood)

Evaluate Key Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 is a blood test that evaluates the body's oxidative stress status and antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress underlies many common chronic diseases and balance is crucial for slowing or stopping degenerative processes. The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 can indicate the need for dietary and/or lifestyle modification which can help minimize further oxidative damage.

Tipping the scales on oxidative stress.

What is Oxidative Stress?

Normal cellular activities including energy production, detoxification of environmental pollutants, and immunologic defense mechanisms produce highly reactive molecules known as free radicals. This effect is naturally counterbalanced by the body's antioxidant systems and the dietary antioxidants found in foods.

When production of free radicals becomes excessive, the antioxidant mechanisms of the cell become overwhelmed, leading to impaired cell function. Oxidative stress is a condition in cells where excessive production of free radicals damages cellular components. Potential targets include lipid membranes, proteins (leading to enzyme inactivation or receptor malfunction), and DNA (leading to mutations and potential cancers).

When should testing for oxidative stress be considered?

Since oxidative stress can affect cellular functions in many body systems, it has been associated with numerous conditions including, but not limited to:1-6

  • Arthritis
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Aging and Neurodegenerative Conditions
  • Cancer
  • Inflammation
  • Diabetes
  • Autoimmune Diseases

The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Blood) Biomarkers

The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 includes markers that are protective against oxidative stress and a marker that indicates damaged tissue resulting from oxidative stress:

  • Protection: These markers indicate antioxidant reserve and redox balance
    • Glutathione is the body's most potent intracellular antioxidant
    • Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) measures the ability of the patient's blood specimen to neutralize free radicals
    • Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid important for glutathione synthesis
    • Sulfate is produced from cysteine and is an important part of detoxification
    • Cysteine/Sulfate Ratio reflects the efficiency of conversion of cysteine to sulfate, known as sulfoxidation
    • Cystine is the oxidized form of the amino acid cysteine
    • Cysteine/Cystine Ratio shows the proportion of reduced versus oxidized cysteine
  • Protective Enzymes: These antioxidant enzymes work together to neutralize free radicals
    • Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) is an antioxidant enzyme that inactivates hydrogen peroxide
    • Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts the superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide
  • Damage: Measures oxidative damage to tissues
    • Lipid Peroxides represent damaged lipids and lipid membranes

What Advantage Does the Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Blood) Offer Compared to Other Diagnostics?

The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Blood) is a panel of biomarkers that provides information on both oxidative stress status as well as antioxidant reserve. Biomarkers arranged as a panel can provide a more robust evaluation of a patient's oxidative status versus any one biomarker alone.

The Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Blood) is more comprehensive as compared to the Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Urine) test, which provides only two markers of oxidative damage. The urine profile may be more appropriate as a follow up test to larger panels such as the NutrEval, Metabolomix+, or Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 (Blood) to assess ongoing damage.

Genova's Methodology

The methodologies in this analysis include:

  • Colorimetric for cysteine, cystine, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase
  • Enzymatic for total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase
  • Turbidimetric for sulfate
  • TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) for lipid peroxides

What Can Clinicians and Patients Expect from Oxidative Stress Testing?

Assessing a patient's oxidative stress status can indicate the need for dietary and/or lifestyle modification and possible need for supplementation with antioxidants or enzymatic cofactors. Reducing sources of oxidative stress, while supporting with antioxidant-rich foods and supplements may reestablish proper oxidative balance and reduce or prevent degenerative changes that lead to chronic disease.

References

  1. Senoner T, Dichtl W. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Diseases: Still a Therapeutic Target? Nutrients. 2019;11(9).
  2. Wu LL, Chiou CC, Chang PY, Wu JT. Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetics. Int J Clin Chem. 2004;339(1-2):1-9.
  3. Salim S. Oxidative Stress and the Central Nervous System. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;360(1):201-205.
  4. Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Rad Biol Med. 2010;49(11):1603-1616.
  5. Smallwood MJ, Nissim A, Knight AR, Whiteman M, Haigh R, Winyard PG. Oxidative stress in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Free Rad Biol Med. 2018;125:3-14.
  6. Lepetsos P, Papavassiliou AG. ROS/oxidative stress signaling in osteoarthritis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862(4):576-591.
Analyte List
Cysteine
Cystine
Glutathione
Glutathione, Peroxidase
Lipid Peroxides
Sulfate
Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Total Antioxidant Capacity, TAC
CPT Codes  
Cysteine 82136
Glutathione 82978
Glutathione, Peroxidase 84311
Lipid Peroxides 84311
Sulfate 84311
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) 84311
Total Antioxidant Capacity, TAC 84311
Specimen Requirements
2 SST (2 serum samples, 4ml each) and 1 EDTA (whole blood, 6ml)